An Explanation of Deductive 演绎逻辑 and Inductive Logic 归纳逻辑

For people doing academic research, we’ve tried to explain two forms of logic with frequently used academic words.

Deductive logic begins with having a big idea in mind. A person envisions a concept or abstraction without concrete or specific form. About their idea, the person thinks, “I wonder if this idea is true. Let me do an experiment, collect some specific, concrete data, and see if what happens fits with my idea.” This is an example of using deductive logic. The person makes observations, draws conclusions, then decides whether or not the data supports the original idea/hypothesis.

演绎逻辑 yǎnyì luójí deductive logic
Literal translation by keyword: perform deduce logic

Inductive logic begins with noticing some small details. The person thinks, “I wonder what explains why those small things are as they are. Do they belong to a larger whole? Let me design some experiments in which I observe these specific, concrete details in many contexts. Maybe, as a result of many observations, I can draw conclusions about the bigger picture. I may be wrong but at least I will be making an informed, educated guess.” This approach would be considered an example of inductive logic.

归纳逻辑 guīnà luójí inductive logic
Literal translation by keyword: return na (sound) logic.

As part of our Academic Words project, we have been making Academic Words quizzes. Here’s a quiz related to 演绎逻辑 yǎnyì luójí deductive logic and 归纳逻辑 guīnà luójí inductive logic.

#14

Please match the academic word with its correct definition. To assist with studying, please copy and paste the questions, then add your answers to create single lines.

Example answer:

1. abstract 抽象 chōuxiàng b. an idea or theory without concrete form

1. the use of inductive logic 归纳逻辑 guīnà luójí
2. the use of deductive logic 演绎逻辑 yǎnyì luójí
3. example of inductive logic
4. example of deductive logic

a. Scientists and philosophers use this type of logic because they first make specific observations then infer general principles that might explain what they observe. These conclusions, however, may be incorrect.
b. The scientific method uses this type of logic because it tests hypotheses. If the hypothesis is correct, it would predict specific outcomes.
c. I see frogs in this place. Therefore, this must be a good place for frogs to live.
d. In this place, all the frogs are green. King Frog is in this place. Therefore King Frog is green.

King Frog

Answers: 1a, 2b, 3c, 4d

Here are more Academic Words quizzes.

This post was written by Anne Giles. She consulted with Tian Gan, for her expertise in Mandarin Chinese and English.

Examples of Verb Tenses in Academic English Using 井底之蛙

As part of our Academic Words project to help people in academia learn Mandarin Chinese, we used a common idiom and plain language to demonstrate verb tenses frequently used in English.

井底之蛙 jǐngdǐzhīwā, translated by character and keyword as “well end of frog,” fully translated as “frog at the bottom of a well,” is a 成语 chéngyǔ, or idiom, meaning “having a narrow view” or “having tunnel vision.” Here is Purple Culture’s explanation with example sentences.

Frog in a well 井底之蛙

Tenses locate an event in time. The “event” may be an observed physical phenomenon. It may also be an internal experience, perhaps a thought, a memory, or a physical sensation.

Walden University has created a list of the most common verb tenses in English used in academic writing.

Simple present

The frog looks at the well. He believes bugs are in the well.
青蛙看着井。 他相信虫子在井里。
Qīngwā kànzhe jǐng. Tā xiāngxìn chóngzi zài jǐng lǐ.

Simple past

The frog looked behind him for other frogs. He wanted to share some bugs.
青蛙在他身后寻找其他青蛙。他想分享这些虫子。
Qīngwā zài tā shēnhòu xúnzhǎo qítā qīngwā. Tā xiǎng fēnxiǎng zhèxiē chóngzi.

Present perfect

He and other frogs have shared bugs before.
他和其他青蛙以前分享过虫子。
Tā hé qítā qīngwā yǐqián fēnxiǎngguò chóngzi.

Future

The frog thinks, “I will jump into the well to find the bugs!”
青蛙想:“我要跳到井里去找虫子!”
Qīngwā xiǎng:“Wǒ yào tiào dào jǐng lǐ qù zhǎo chóngzi!”

For the next examples, we follow and quote Shane Bryson’s Common Uses of Tenses in Academic Writing. For the sake of the story, we have rearranged the order.

“Present simple: used for facts, generalizations, and truths that are not affected by the passage of time.”

The frog looks at the well. He believes bugs are in the well.
青蛙看着井。 他相信虫子在井里。
Qīngwā kànzhe jǐng. Tā xiāngxìn chóngzi zài jǐng lǐ.

“Past simple: used for events completed in the past.”

The frog looked behind him for other frogs. He wanted to eat bugs and he also wanted to share bugs with other frogs.
青蛙在他身后寻找其他青蛙。他想吃虫子,也想和其他青蛙分享虫子。
Qīngwā zài tā shēnhòu xúnzhǎo qítā qīngwā. Tā xiǎng chī chóngzi, yě xiǎng hé qítā qīngwā fēnxiǎng chóngzi.

The story continues (not an example of the above):

Because he had only these two ideas and priorities, he was a “a frog at the bottom of a well” and had “tunnel vision.”
青蛙在他身后寻找其他青蛙。他想吃虫子,也想和其他青蛙分享虫子。因为他只有这两个想法和优先事项,所以他是井底之蛙、有“局限的视野。”
Yīnwèi tā zhǐyǒu zhè liǎng gè xiǎngfǎ hé yōuxiān shìxiàng, suǒyǐ tā shì jǐngdǐzhīwā, yǒu “Júxiàn de shìyě.”

“Future simple: used for events to be completed in the future.”

The frog will jump into the well to find bugs.
青蛙会跳进井里寻找虫子。
Qīngwā huì tiào jìn jǐng lǐ xúnzhǎo chóngzi.

“Present perfect: used to describe events that began in the past and are expected to continue, or to emphasize the relevance of past events to the present moment.”

The frog has jumped into wells before.
青蛙以前跳过井。
Qīngwā yǐqián tiàoguò jǐng.

“Past perfect: used to describe events that happened prior to other events in the past.”

The frog had jumped into other wells and found many bugs.
青蛙跳进了其他井里,发现了很多虫子。
Qīngwā tiào jìnle qítā jǐng lǐ, fāxiànle hěnduō chóngzi.

“Future perfect: used to describe events that will be completed between now and a specific point in the future.”

The frog hopes he will have eaten and shared many bugs by the end of the day.
青蛙希望他能在一天结束时吃掉并分享很多虫子。
Qīngwā xīwàng tā néng zài yītiān jiéshù shí chī diào bìng fēnxiǎng hěnduō chóngzi.

“Present continuous: used to describe currently ongoing (usually temporary) actions.”

The frog is thinking about sharing the bugs with other frogs.
青蛙正在考虑和其他青蛙分享虫子。
Qīngwā zhèngzài kǎolǜ hé qítā qīngwā fēnxiǎng chóngzi.

“Future perfect continuous: used to describe events that will continue up until a point in the future, emphasizing their expected duration.”

The frog will have been thinking about sharing bugs for a long time when he finally finds other frogs.
当它终于找到其他青蛙时,青蛙会考虑分享虫子这件事很长时间。
Dāng tā zhōngyú zhǎodào qítā qīngwā shí, qīngwā huì kǎolǜ fēnxiǎng chóngzi zhè jiàn shì hěn cháng shíjiān.

“Present perfect continuous: used to describe events that started in the past and continue into the present or were recently completed, emphasizing their relevance to the present moment.”

The frog has been thinking about jumping into the well and now needs to get started.
青蛙一直在考虑跳进井里,现在需要开始了。
Qīngwā yīzhí zài kǎolǜ tiào jìn jǐng lǐ, xiànzài xūyào kāishǐle.

“Past continuous: used to describe ongoing past events, often in relation to the occurrence of another event.”

The frog was getting ready to jump into the well when he heard a sound.
青蛙正准备跳进井里,突然听到声音。
Qīngwā zhèng zhǔnbèi tiào jìn jǐng lǐ, tūrán tīng dào shēngyīn.

The story continues (not an example of the above):

Another frog! “I am so glad to meet you!,” the frog said. “How are you? I will get bugs for us!”
又一只青蛙! “很高兴认识你!”青蛙说。 “你好吗?我去给我们找虫子!”
Yòu yī zhǐ qīngwā! “Hěn gāoxìng rènshi nǐ!” Qīngwā shuō. “Nǐ hǎo ma? Wǒ qù gěi wǒmen zhǎo chóngzi!

“Past perfect continuous: used to describe events that began, continued, and ended in the past, emphasizing their relevance to a past moment.”

The frog had been thinking about eating and sharing bugs a long time and needed to jump into the well to get them.
青蛙一直想着吃和分享虫子,需要跳进井里才能得到它们。
Qīngwā yīzhí xiǎngzhe chī hé fēnxiǎng chóngzi, xūyào tiào jìn jǐng lǐ cáinéng dédào tāmen.

The story continues (not an example of the above):

The frog jumped into the well, found bugs, jumped out of the well, and shared them with his friend.
青蛙跳进井里,找到了虫子,从井里跳了出来,并和他的朋友分享。
Qīngwā tiào jìn jǐng lǐ, zhǎodàole chóngzi, cóng jǐng lǐ tiàole chūlái, bìng hé tā de péngyǒu fēnxiǎng.

“Future continuous: used to describe future events that are expected to continue over a period of time.”

The frog will be jumping into a lot of wells, eating a lot of bugs, and sharing a lot of bugs during his lifetime.
青蛙一生会跳很多井,吃很多虫子,分享很多虫子。
Qīngwā yīshēng huì tiào hěnduō jǐng, chī hěnduō chóngzi, fēnxiǎng hěnduō chóngzi.

 . . . .

This post was written by Anne Giles. The idea for the post came from a language exchange partner Anne met through HelloTalk. She consulted with Tian Gan, italki instructor Depeng, and language exchange partners for their expertise in Mandarin Chinese and English.

Fish or Fish Tank? 鱼还是鱼缸?

学生说:
Xuéshēng shuō:
The student says:

老师, 我听说美国人和中国人想的方式不一样.
Lǎoshī, wǒ tīng shuō měiguó rén hé zhōngguó rén xiǎng de fāngshì bù yīyàng.
Teacher, I have heard that American people and Chinese people think differently.

Do you see the fish or the fish tank?

据研究,当两人看到鱼缸里鱼的照片时,美国人看鱼,中国人看鱼缸。
Jù yánjiū, dāng liǎng rén kàn dào yúgāng lǐ yú de zhàopiàn shí, měiguó rén kàn yú, zhōngguó rén kàn yúgāng.
According to research, when both people see a photo of a fish tank with fish, American people see the fish and Chinese people see the fish tank.

如果我们看见 的不一样,我们怎么能 建立有意义的联系?
Rúguǒ wǒmen kànjiàn de bù yīyàng, wǒmen zěnme néng jiànlì yǒu yìyì de liánxì?
If we don’t see the same, how can we make meaningful connections?

老师说:
Lǎoshī shuō:
The teacher says:

我们既要看见鱼也要看见鱼缸。
Wǒmen jì yào kànjiàn yú yě yào kànjiàn yúgāng.
We need to see not only the fish but also the fish tank.

我们要看见每个人的情况而不是只看见一个群体.
Wǒmen yào kànjiàn měi gèrén de qíngkuàng ér bùshì zhǐ kànjiàn yīgè qúntǐ.
Rather than only see a group, we need to see each person’s situation.

Authors: Depeng and Anne Giles

Research on seeing fish and fish tanks, thanks to Sofia Zhang-Midkoff:

This post includes 想 xiǎng, a meaningful word on our list of universal human concepts. The word  想 xiǎng is also featured here.

If you are a user of Mandarin Blueprint, the content may be helpful in learning these characters:

Phase 3 Level 13 Character #117 想 xiǎng
Phase 4 Level 25 Character #368 鱼 yú

This post is part of our Meaningful Words 有意义的词 yǒu yìyì de cí series. The series features dialogues about universal human concepts in Mandarin Chinese and in English. Posts in the Meaningful Words series are here and posts related to Mandarin Chinese are here. If you are interested in writing for the Meaningful Words series, please see these submission requirements.

Image: iStock

Anne Giles, M.A., M.S., L.P.C., is a student of Mandarin Chinese and also a mental health counselor, able to provide counseling services only to residents of the Commonwealth of Virginia, U.S.A. This content is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical or professional advice. Consult a qualified health care professional for personalized medical and professional advice.

What Do You Think? 你怎么想?

This video by Benfang Wang features 想 xiǎng, a meaningful word on our list of universal human concepts.

Benfang Wang’s Mandarin Chinese learning materials include artificial intelligence technology. To access Benfang’s “All about 想 xiǎng” AI materials, register for a free account through Benfang’s Edugo.ai portal. Then follow this link to Benfang’s Edugo.ai materials, log in, and scroll down to Lesson 10.

Please find Benfang Wang on italki, YouTube, and Facebook.

If you are a user of Mandarin Blueprint, the video’s content may be helpful in learning these characters:

Phase 3 Level 13 Character #105 来 lái
Phase 3 Level 13 Character #117: 想 xiǎng
Phase 3 Level 14 Character #131: 起 qǐ
Phase 4 Level 25 Character #359: 出 chū

This post is part of our Meaningful Words 有意义的词 yǒu yìyì de cí series. The series features dialogues about universal human concepts in Mandarin Chinese and in English. Posts in the Meaningful Words series are here and posts related to Mandarin Chinese are here. If you are interested in writing for the Meaningful Words series, please see these submission requirements.

This content is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical or professional advice. Consult a qualified health care professional for personalized medical and professional advice.

Universal Human Concepts

To the best of my ability to discern and express them, below is a list of fundamental, universal human concepts that, if people can become aware of them, can help them live humane, skillful lives, regardless of language. If they can use these concepts in words, they may be able to connect more skillfully and meaningfully with each other.

Kindness for all

Simple language summary

If people are kind to themselves and others, and aware of themselves and others, they can gently become aware of many components of their inner lives and their interactions with others. This awareness offers the ability to make conscious decisions about potentially helpful ways to speak, act, relate, and work, increasing the likelihood of optimal results for self and others.

List of concepts

These concepts, and related ones, are listed below and defined in Chinese and English. To assist early learners of Mandarin Chinese, after the Chinese character is listed the pinyin, then a literal, one-word translation into English of each character, then an English translation in bold. Explanatory words are included but are not in bold.

善良 shànliáng | good very good | kindness
自我善良 zìwǒ shànliáng | self I good very good | self-kindness
对别的人善良 duì bié de rén shànliáng | towards other people good very good | kindness towards others
意识 yìshí | meaning knowledge | awareness, consciousness
自我意识 zìwǒ yìshí | self I meaning knowledge | self-awareness
对别的人意识 duì bié de rén yīshí | towards other people meaning knowledge | awareness of others
感觉 gǎnjué | feel become aware of | feelings
想法 xiǎngfǎ } think method } thoughts
头脑 tóunǎo | head brain | mind; not the same as thoughts
大脑 dànǎo | big brain | brain; not the same as thoughts
事实 shìshí | affair/matter reality | facts
对 / 对抗 duì / duìkàng | towards | versus/vs.
信念 xìnniàn | believe think | beliefs; not the same as facts
需要 xūyào | need want } needs
想要 xiǎng yào | think want | wants
偏好 piānhào | bias want } preferences
价值观 jiàzhíguān | price value sight | values
优先级 yōuxiān jí | excellent first level | priorities
同理心 tóng lǐ xīn | alike reason heart } empathy
同情 tóngqíng | alike feeling | sympathy; not the same as empathy
理解 lǐjiě | reason separate | understanding
做选择 zuò xuǎnzé | make choice pick with hand | to make
a choice
决定 juédìng | decidedly set | to decide
方法 fāngfǎ | square/direction, law/method/way | method, way
优化 yōuhuà | optimize
做到最好 zuò dào zuì hǎo | optimization, make best
(Instead of trying to work harder, seeking ways to work better/more efficiently.)
协同作用 xiétóng zuòyòng | association alike/together do use | synergy = greater than the sum of the parts
判断 pànduàn | to sentence to cut off | judgment | Judgment is a soul-killer and a destroyer of possibility.
内在智慧 nèizài zhìhuì | internal at intelligence wisdom | inner wisdom; results from dialectic/synergy of awareness of feelings and thoughts
战略 zhànlüè | fight summary | strategy
技能 jìnéng | skill can | skills
连结 liánjié | link knot | a sense of feeling connected as humans in meaningful ways
一种存在方式 yī zhǒng cúnzài fāngshì | one type deposit at direction system | a way of being

An earlier version of this list as a .pdf is here.

Image: iStock

The list is informed by my knowledge, training and experience as a scholar, educator, counselor, learner of Mandarin Chinese, and person. I created this content in consultation with multiple individuals proficient in Mandarin Chinese. All errors are mine.

Anne Giles, M.A., M.S., L.P.C., is a student of Mandarin Chinese and also a mental health counselor, able to provide counseling services only to residents of the Commonwealth of Virginia, U.S.A. This content is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical or professional advice. Consult a qualified health care professional for personalized medical and professional advice.